García I Íñiguez, rey de Pamplona

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García Íñiguez de Pamplona (Ennecones), rey de Pamplona

Portuguese: Garcia Iñiguez de Pamplona, rey de Pamplona, Spanish: García I Iñiguez de Pamplona, Rey de Pamplona
Also Known As: "García Jiménez II of Pamplona"
Death: 882 (71-72)
Lekunberri, Navarre, Spain (killed by Arabs)
Place of Burial: Leire, Spain
Immediate Family:

Son of Íñigo (Enneco) Arista de Pamplona, 1st King of Pamplona and Oneca Velazquez de Pamplona
Husband of Urraca Mayor and Leodegundis de Asturias, reina consorte de Pamplona
Partner of N.N.
Father of Fortún Garcés el Monje, rey de Pamplona; Sancho Garcés de Pamplona; Oneca (Iñiga) García de Pamplona and Jimena Garcés de Pamplona, reina consorte de Asturias
Brother of Assona Iñiguez; Nunila Iñiguez de Pamplona and Galindo Iñíguez de Pamplona

Occupation: Rey de Pamplona, Rei de Pamplona, King of Pamplona, (sub- or co-)king of a part of Pamplona in the late 9th century. (The Basque ruling dynasty (Jiménez)., Príncipe de Navarra, Bisnieto del Duque Jimeno de Pamplona., Rey de Pamplona 852, Konge
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About García I Íñiguez, rey de Pamplona

García Iñiguez
King of Pamplona
Reign 851-2 – 870
Predecessor Íñigo Arista
Successor Fortún Garcés
Born c. 810
Burial Monastery of Leyre
Consort Urraca
more... Fortún Garcés
House House of Íñiguez
Father Íñigo Arista

García Íñiguez I (Latin: Garsea Enneconis, Basque: Gartzea Eneko; c. 810 – 882), also known as García I was the second king of Pamplona from 851–2 until his death. He was the son of Íñigo Arista, the first king of Pamplona. Educated in Cordoba, he was a successful military leader who led the military campaigns of the kingdom during the last years of his father's life.[1][2]


García Íñiguez, sometimes García I, II, or III (Arabic: قرسية بن ونّقه البشكنشي‎, Garsiya ibn Wannaqo al Baškuniši) was king of Pamplona from 851/2 to his death in 882. He was educated in Córdoba, as a guest at the court of the Emir of Córdoba. He was the son of Íñigo Arista, the first king of their dynasty. When his father was stricken by paralysis in 842, he became regent of the kingdom (or perhaps co-regent with his uncle Fortún Íñiguez). He and his kinsman Mūsā ibn Mūsā ibn Fortún of the Banu Qasi rebelled against the Cordoban emir in 843. This rebellion was put down by Emir Abd-ar-Rahman II, who attacked the Kingdom of Pamplona, defeating García badly and killing Fortún. At his father's death in 851/2, he succeeded to the crown.

Following the death of Íñigo Arista, the Banu Qasi leader Mūsā ibn Mūsā pursued a policy of closer allegiance with Muhammad I of Córdoba, leaving García to look to Christian Asturias for an ally.[1] In 859, the Vikings captured García, probably far removed from his Basque kingdom of Navarre,[4] somewhere in the Andalusian heartland, and extorted a hefty ransom,[5] rising to around 70,000 gold dinars.[6] Later the same year, Mūsā ibn Mūsā attacked the Pamplonese city of Albelda. García and his new friend Ordoño I of Asturias together dealt Mūsā a crushing blow, killing, it is said, 10,000 of his magnates in the Battle of Albelda. This, in turn, provoked a raid by Mohammed I of Córdoba[7] in response and the next year, 860, saw García's son and heir Fortún captured and imprisoned by Mohammed I of Córdoba.[7][6]

He languished in Córdoba for the next 20 years. In 870, García formed an alliance with the Muslim rebel Amrūs ibn Umar ibn Amrūs, who had killed Garcia's nephew Mūsā ibn Galindo of Huesca, and the next year was apparently in a new alliance with the sons of Mūsā ibn Mūsā, now in rebellion against Córdoba.

García's death has been subject to scholarly dispute, a result of a paucity of records from the last years of his reign. The lack of subsequent mention of him after 870 led to the suggestion that he died in that year, while his eldest son and heir was in the hands of his enemies, it was argued that García Jiménez governed the kingdom as regent. García's son, Fortún Garcés, is then made to succeed upon his release in 880. There is, however, no evidence for such a regency, and Sanchéz Albornoz has cited evidence that García was still living at the time of his son's return.[6] Thus it is likely that Balparda was reporting an accurate tradition when he suggested García and ally Umar ibn Hafsun fought a battle at Aibar, not far from present-day Lumbier, against the troops of the Emir of Córdoba in 882, García dying there (although the age provided him, 84 years, is clearly exaggerated).

Marriage and descendants

The identity of García's wife or wives is poorly documented, and has been subject to much speculation. An undated confirmation of an earlier lost charter refers to King García and Queen Urraca Mayor, and this is thought by some to refer to García Íñiguez and an otherwise unknown wife. Based on her name alone, it has been suggested that she was of the Banu Qasi, but other historians have given her different parentage, or even a different king as husband.

Likewise, royal princess Leodegundia Ordoñez of Asturias, daughter of Ordoño I of Asturias, is known to have married a ruler of Pamplona, and García Íñiguez is one of those speculated to have been this prince.

García Íñiguez had following children:

  1. Fortún Garcés, king of Pamplona from 870 until 905 and married to Auria.
  2. Onneca Garcés, married to Count Aznar Galíndez II of Aragon.[9]
  3. Sancho Garcés, father of Aznar Sánchez de Larraun — the second husband of his cousin Onneca Fortúnez — and probably of Velazquita, who married Mutarrif ibn Musa, of the Banu Qasi.[a]

He may also have been the father of Jimena, who married King Alfonso III of Asturias[13] between 26 May and 20 December 873, both appearing together for first time in 874 making a donation to the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.[14] Her name and the status of her husband as the premier monarch in Christian Iberia suggests that she could have come from nothing short of the highest levels of Pamplona society, though some have instead derived her from the Jimenez dynasty.


a. Chronicler Ibn Hayyan says Velasquita was daughter of king García Íñiguez, but al-Udri names her father as Sancho, lord of Pamplona.[10] The latter has been preferred by historians.[9][11] This reference to Sancho as 'lord', along with a reference by Ibn Khaldun to a Sancho, 'governor of Pamplona and chief of the Basques' in 865, and an 867 charter that names 'king' Sancho as son-in-law of Galindo Aznárez I of Aragón, led Antonio Ubieto Arteta to propose that it was Sancho Garcés who ruled in Pamplona in the mid-to-late 860s, during at least part of the period that his brother, Fortún Garcés, was held captive in Córdoba.[12]

García I Íiguez (c.810-870), son of Íñigo Arista from about 842, was regent and led the military campaigns during the last years of the life of his father who fell ill around 841-842 and remained paralytic. It happened to its father in the throne of Pamplona in 851-852, [1] [2] besides that of Sobrarbe.

Garcia was educated in Córdoba. In May 843 he helped his uncle Musa ibn Musa in his insurrection against the emir of Cordoba. The result was the attack of Abd al-Rahman II of Cordova to the lands of Pamplona, ​​that finished the following month with a resounding victory of the emir on García Íñiguez and Musa.

In 859 he was captured by a Viking expedition. Released after paying a ransom of 70,000 gold, [1] [6] abandoned the old alliances with the Banu Qasi and approached the kingdom of Asturias. Garcia allied with the Asturian king Ordoño I and together they obtained an important triumph before the Muslims in the battle of Albelda in 859-860, that also was called the "battle of Monte Laturce" or the one of Clavijo. This Christian victory motivated the bankruptcy of the Banu Qasi's power and the consequent Cordovan reaction.

His son Fortun Garces was taken prisoner by the Muslims in 860 and was held in Cordoba, in a golden exile, more than 20 years. After the death of García Íñiguez in 870 until the return of his son Fortún Garcés of its captivity in Cordova in 882, it seems that governed like Jiménez governor in Jiménez, son of Jimeno García (dynasty Jimena).

During his reign the first steps were taken to favor the passage of pilgrims who came to Compostela, laying the first stones of the future "Camino de Santiago".

Marriage and descent

He was married to Urraca, who does not have any documentary data to know his lineage, although bearing in mind that he had a son named Fortún, a name that several members of the mulad llev dynasty took, he could be the daughter of Fortun Ibn Musa (died 874 ) And cousin sister of Muhammad ibn Lub, the grandfather of the Urraca, Queen Asturian.

They were parents of:

  • Fortun Garcés, king of Pamplona, ​​married to Oria (Áurea), possibly daughter of Lopo Ibn Musa.
  • Sancho Garcés of Pamplona, ​​father of Aznar Sánchez de Larraún, count of Aragon and Valasquita Sánchez, married with Mutarif Ibn Musa, wal of Huesca.
  • Onneca of Pamplona, ​​married with Aznar II Galíndez.
  • He could also be the father of Jimena Garcés, married to Alfonso III the Great, and several parents, including King Garcia I of Leon, who would bear the name of his paternal grandfather. Jimena, however, is not mentioned in the Codex de Roda as the daughter of King Garcia Iniguez.




Regent 842, King of Pamplona 852; Deceased 870. Married in 1ªnp with:

URRACA DE GASCUÑA, daughter of Count Sancho Sánchez de Gascony. Parents of:

1.- Fotún Garcés, follow the line.

4.- Sancho Garcés, Coregen of Pamplona with García Jiménez 870-82. Father of:

A.- Aznar Sánchez de Larraún, married his cousin-sister Oneca Durr, daughter of King Fortún Garcés. C / s.

5.- Belasquita, married Mutarif ibn Musa of Huesca.

Married in 2ªnp with:

N. DE GOHTIA. Parents of:

3.- Jimena, married in 869-70 with Alfonso III "the Magno", King of Asturias, Leon and Galicia. C / s.

In 3ªnp married with:

LEODEGUNDIA DE LEÓN, daughter of King Ordoño Iº de Asturias. Parents of:.

2 .- Oneca (Íñiga), married Aznar II Galindo, Count of Aragon. C / s.

Íñigo "Arista" & his wife ONECA had four children:

1. GARCÍA Iñíguez ([810]-killed by Arabs [Lumberri] 882[57], bur Leire Monastery). The Codex de Roda names "Garsea Enneconis et domna Assona…et domna ---" as the children of "Enneco cognomento Aresta"[58]. He succeeded his father in [852] as GARCÍA I [King] of Pamplona. He was defeated by the Muslims in [858]. "Rexo Garsia, filius Eneconis" donated property to the monastery of Leire, with the advice of "filii mei Fortunii", by charter dated 21 Oct 880[59]. This is the only source so far identified which accords the royal title to García and it is not clear whether it was contemporary. The Libro de Regla of Leire Monastery, compiled in 1076, records that "filius eius Garsea Ennecones" ruled for 12 years after the death of "Enneco Xemenones" and died "era DCCCXXXV…in Lumberri", his body being returned "ad monasterium Legeren" (for burial)[60].

m [firstly] URRACA, daughter of ---. An undated charter refers to a confirmation by “rex domnus Garcia et regina domna Urraca maiore”[61]. Her origin is not known. Rodrigo Ximénez de Rada, writing in the first half of the 13th century, records that "Enecho…Arista…filium Garsiam" married "Urracam, de Regio semine"[62]. Jaurgain suggests that "de Regio semine" should be interpreted as meaning "de la même race que lui" (based on his assumption that the kings of Navarre were descended from the dukes of Gascony, about which there appears to be no proof) and that Urraca was "fille de Sanche-Sancion duc de Vasconie", although he cites no primary source which confirms this parentage[63]. Her origin is discussed by Salazar y Acha who suggests that she was a member of the Banu Qasi family, related to the second wife of Fruela II King of Asturias, which would account for the introduction of the name Fortún into the family of the kings of Navarre[64].

[m secondly LEODEGUNDIS de Asturias, daughter of [ORDOÑO I King of Asturias & his wife Munia ---]. The manuscript of the Codex de Roda entitled "Versi domna Leodegundia regina" names "Leodegundiam Ordonii filiam" and indicates her position as Queen of Pamplona after her marriage[65]. She is not named in the genealogies in the earlier part of the Codex de Roda. She has been suggested as a possible second wife of King García I but, as there is no indication of dates in the "Versi", this is mere speculation. Barrau-Dihigo casts doubt on this identification[66]. It is of course possible that she was not a historical figure at all. It may have been convenient for chroniclers of the rulers of Pamplona to invent a dynastic connection with the kings of Asturias in order to boost local credibility.]

García I & his [first] wife had [four] children:

  • a) FORTÚN García ([830]-after 905). The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife[67]. He succeeded his father in 882 as FORTÚN [King] of Pamplona. See below.
  • b) SANCHO García . The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife[68]. m ---. The name of Sancho's wife is not known. Sancho García & his wife had [two] children: …
  • c) ONECA García. The Codex de Roda names "Fortunio Garseanis et Sanzio Garseanis et domna Onneca" as the children of "Garsea Enneconis" and his unnamed wife, stating that Oneca married "Asnari Galindones de Aragone"[77]. m AZNAR [II] Galíndez Conde de Aragón, son of GALINDO [I] Aznar Conde de Aragón & his wife --- (-893).
  • d) [JIMENA (-after Jun 912, bur [Astorga, transferred to Oviedo Santa María]). m ([869/70]%29 ALFONSO III “el Magno” King of Asturias, son of ORDOÑO I King of Asturias & his wife Munia --- (848-20 Dec 910).]
  • García & his [wife/mistress] had one [illegitimate] child: e) daughter . Ibn Hayyan´s Muqtabis II records "la hija de Garsiya ibn W.n.q." as the wife of "Amrus ibn Amr ibn Amrus" in A.H. 259 [872/73][85]. It is possible that this daughter of [King] García was illegitimate. m as his (x) wife, AMRUS ibn Umar Wali [governor/king] of Huesca, son of UMAR ibn Amrus (-[Huesca] Apr 875).


Acerca de García I Iñiguez de Pamplona, Rey de Pamplona (Español)Íñiguez_de_Pamplona

García Íñiguez
Caudillo pamplonés
Garcia Iñiguez de Navarra - Compendio de crónicas de reyes (Biblioteca Nacional de España).png
García Íñiguez de Pamplona - Compendio de crónicas de reyes (Biblioteca Nacional de España).
851/852 – 881/882
Predecesor Íñigo Arista
Sucesor Fortún Garcés
Información personal
Otros títulos Conde de Bigorra y Rey legendario de Sobrarbe
Nacimiento c. 810
Fallecimiento 882
Dinastía Dinastía Arista-Íñiga
Padre Íñigo Arista de Pamplona
Heredero Fortún Garcés
Hijos Véase Descendencia.
Escudo de Iñiguez.png
Escudo de García Íñiguez

García Íñiguez, García Íñiguez II de Sobrarbe1​(c. 810-8812​/882),3​ hijo de Íñigo Arista, desde aproximadamente 842 fue regente y llevó la dirección de las campañas militares durante los últimos años de la vida de su padre, que enfermó alrededor de 841-842 y quedó paralítico. Sucedió a su padre en el liderazgo de Pamplona en 851-852.2​4​


García fue educado en Córdoba. En mayo de 843 ayudó a su tío Musa ibn Musa en su insurrección contra el emir de Córdoba. El resultado fue el ataque de Abd al-Rahman II de Córdoba a las tierras de Pamplona, que terminó el mes siguiente con una rotunda victoria del emir sobre García Íñiguez y Musa.5​

En 859 fue apresado por una expedición vikinga que había subido por el río Ebro. Liberado tras pagar un rescate de 70 000 monedas de oro,2​6​ abandonó las antiguas alianzas con los Banu Qasi y se acercó al reino de Asturias. García se alió con el rey asturiano Ordoño I y juntos obtuvieron un importante triunfo ante los musulmanes en la batalla de Albelda en 859-860, que también fue llamada la «batalla de Monte Laturce» o la «de Clavijo».7​ Esta victoria cristiana motivó la quiebra del poder de los Banu Qasi y la consiguiente reacción cordobesa.

Su hijo Fortún Garcés fue hecho prisionero por los musulmanes en 860 y estuvo retenido en Córdoba, en un exilio dorado, más de veinte años.2​6​ Después de la muerte de García Íñiguez, hasta el regreso de su hijo Fortún Garcés de su cautiverio en Córdoba en 882, parece que gobernó como regente en Pamplona García Jiménez.

Durante su mandato se tomaron las primeras medidas para favorecer el paso de peregrinos que acudían a Compostela, poniendo las primeras piedras del futuro camino de Santiago.

Matrimonio y descendencia

Estuvo casado con Urraca de quien no existe ningún dato documental para conocer su linaje, aunque teniendo en cuenta que tuvo un hijo llamado Fortún, nombre que llevaron varios miembros de la dinastía muladí, podría ser hija de Fortún ibn Musa (muerto en 874), nieta paterna de Musa ibn Musa y Assona Íñiguez y prima hermana de Muhammad ibn Lubb, el abuelo de la Urraca reina asturiana.8​ Fueron padres de:

  • Fortún Garcés, caudillo de Pamplona, casado con Auria, posiblemente hija de Lubb ibn Musa.
  • Sancho Garcés de Pamplona, casado con una mujer desconocida y padre de:
    • Aznar Sánchez de Larraún, conde de Aragón, casado con su prima hermana Onneca Fortúnez, de quién fue segundo marido.
    • Velasquita Sánchez de Pamplona, casada con Mutarrif ibn Musa, walí de Huesca, hijo de Musa ibn Musa y Assona Íñiguez.9​
  • Oneca de Pamplona, casada con Aznar II Galíndez.9​

También pudo ser el padre de Jimena Garcés, casada con Alfonso III el Magno, además de varios hijos más. El rey García I de León, hijo de Jimena de Asturias y Alfonso III, llevaría el nombre de su abuelo paterno. Jimena, sin embargo, no está mencionada en el Códice de Roda como hija del rey García Íñiguez.

García I Íñiguez - (Siglo IX) Rey de Navarra (851-870). Después de independizarse de los carolingios, y a diferencia de los aragoneses, que se mantuvieron como condado, los navarros reflejaron su aspiración a una completa autonomía constituyéndose formalmente en un reino gobernando por un monarca. Se sabe poco del carácter de tal institución; los reyes ejercían obviamente como señores del país, intentaban frenar toda invasión extranjera y lo lograron en gran medida gracias a los vínculos de sangre que mantenían con la poderosa familia de los Banu Qasi del Ebro, con los que se hallan emparentados.

El primer rey de Pamplona fue Íñigo Arista, que reinó hasta su fallecimiento en el año 851. Le sucedió en el trono su hijo García I Íñiguez, bajo cuyo reinado la monarquía de Pamplona pasó por difíciles momentos al romperse el pacto con los Banu Qasi. El reino fue atacado entonces primero por los vikingos y luego por los cordobeses, que hicieron prisioneros, respectivamente, al mismo García Iñiguez (858) y a su hijo Fortún Garcés (860).

Junto a la familia reinante destacó en Navarra, desde mediados del siglo IX, la de los Jimeno, que tras el reinado del hijo de García Iñiguez, Fortún Garcés (870-905), se hizo con el poder en la persona de Sancho Garcés I (905-925). La fuerza moral adquirida por la nueva dinastía se prueba por la pervivencia de la misma, la cual conseguiría mantenerse bajo la dirección de una mujer, Toda, durante la minoría y el reinado de García Sánchez I (925-970).


àcerca (Português)

Filho do rei Íñigo Arista, foi regente desde 842 por invalidez do pai, o primeiro rei da Dinastia Iñiguez a quem sucedeu no trono de Pamplona entre 851/852. Rei de Pamplona e Conde da Bigorre e de Sobrarbe.